Saturday, December 7, 2019

Diploma in Business Administration

Question: Discuss about theDiploma in Business Administration. Answer: Introduction Green Heaters Pty Ltd Company is a new firm which manufactures and sells heaters in a wholesale form. It comprises of five board of directors and is planning to recruit about 100 employees within the first financial year. In the same year, sales are expected to be 650,000. This report explains the standard documents required for a company when it starts, its strategies and how they will be implemented. Developing Standard Documents They refer to essential writings which provide guidelines, requirements, and specifications that the management requires for the efficient running of the organization. To prepare such documents, certain methodologies and processes will be considered to produce quality written.Hu, et al. (2014, p.791) explains there are four main steps to follow when preparing the documents. Skimming, Preparation, and Planning Adequate planning and design of the materials are significantly more for new companies. The method entails discussing, drafting and writing down roughly the ideas of the paper (Winton, et al. 2013. P .47). The board holds a meeting for startup of the enterprise. The required documents will be identified, their contents discussed and the preparation duty is assigned to one of the directors. That will be me. Writing the Documents Now that the content is discussed, the final draft can be written down or typed strictly following the formal formats required for the reports. Each official document must have a name (title), page number, date of publication, and item number (Coffey, 2014. p.376). The proper design is to be followed with the company logo and name on top of the respective documents. They will have to be short, brief and straight to the point. Formal Review Before the documents are issued to the employees or the public, they will have to go back to the Board for consideration and confirmation. The secretary will present the materials to the directors where they will confirm. The requirements are approved, and at some cases, translation occurs to clarify ideas. An official stamp and copies are filed and retained by particular directors (Leijten et al. 2014, p. 305) Release of the Documents This is the final stage standard material development. They are published and issued to notice boards for the employees and the public. They should be publicized earlier before the deadline date is reached. Official writings usually have a period of twenty to thirty days (Siemens, 2014, p 24). They should be conspicuous and placed at strategic places to be noticed easily. Standard Documents Produced Agenda First and foremost, directors will be required to have a copy of the plan. I will prepare the topics to be discussed systematically where one will lead to another. This will assist the Board to cover all primary areas essential for the firm to start operating. Agendas, in most cases, are issued as papers to enable note taking during the meetings (Nicholson, et al. 2017, 30). Soft-copy agendas may be misplaced or difficult to add notes on them. Memorandum The Green Heaters company will issue memos to attract the public to apply for job opportunities in the business. This will inform the public that the company exists and is ready to start trading. The board will require a management team, as well as laborers and the best method to acquire them, is by the use of a memo. It will have general descriptions informing the public to apply for available jobs in the company. External sources such as the TVs and radio stations can be used to read out the memo. The notice will attract very many people, and the Board can select the best recruits from the crowd. Since all information may not fit on the note, the company website can be provided as macros for the interested persons to get more information. For example, job descriptions, salary ranges and academic qualifications necessary for employment. Below is a sample of the internal memorandum. Sample Green Energy Company To: All employees From: The Board of Directors Date: 02/02/2017 Subject: JOB VACANCIES Greetings, Green Heaters Company is looking forward to recruit 100 employees. The job descriptions and other relevant information are available at our website If you meet our requirements, send us your application letters and academic documents through the link provided in the website. Thank you. Letters These standard documents will be sent to various individuals to pass accurate information. For example, confirmation letters may be issued to inform the job applicants to attend the interviews on a set date. Due to the emergence of technology, printed letters may not be used. The company will respond through the use of electronic mails (emails). Job acceptance letters may be prepared in advance to be sent to the successful recruits. This method will involve the use of hard and soft copies. Instructions and Procedures The company is very new and probably will be hiring the 100 employees within the first year. This document will be critical to direct the laborers to respective areas where they will be required to go. This will save time, ensure consistency and prevent confusion (Funk, et al. 2015, p.54). To make the document useful, models can be used to assist in directing workers. For example, a large picture of helmets and protective clothes templates can be strategically put at the entrance of workshops. Guidelines, Notes, and Handbooks The management will provide small mini-books containing instructions and notes to assist the employees to work as per the standards of the firm. I will prepare the notes to be brief, summarized and understandable. It will contain aims, objectives, and strategies of Green Heaters. For example, it will show estimated sales within the first and subsequent years. The notes will help the employees to know what the firm desires and will work towards achieving it. Reports and Minutes At this stage, the company would have started. It would be recognized in the market for distributing heaters to the wholesalers. All meetings and activities are done from the time the firm started till it began operations will be recorded in the minutes and reports. The minutes cover detailed information on each meeting held. On the other hand, the report is a comprehensive document describing various events in the organization. They will be kept by the senior management only (Tobin et al. 2015, p. 112) Strategies for the Employees Oral Reprimand This applies when a supervisor identifies a problem within the employees. The employees may not be working or following the prepared documents as required. Therefore, a reprimand will be issued to remind them to adhere to communications passed through the publications. Further actions can be taken if the situation is not rectified. Explaining Most Sensitive Employee Areas To make sure each employee goes through the standard documents such as notes, memos, and letters, the management can be defining crucial areas which attract the attention of the workers. For instance, work hours, overtime, compensation, vacations and leave payments (Dias et al. 2016, p 285). The documents can then be blended in with what the directors want to pass across. It will increase chances of reading the material. Brief Notices Internal memos and opinions should be short, conspicuous and boldly written. The Green Heaters company can adopt this strategy to be used whenever they are preparing documents for the employees. The plan assists in creating interesting and understandable information to the workers. Long written documents such as reports and notes may not be thoroughly read (Fergus, 2015. P.699) Proposed Policies and Procedures Landsbergis, et al. (2014. p. 510) explain the following rules and procedures which Green Heaters can implement to make employees use the standard documents accordingly; Policies Use of warnings-If an employee causes a mistake in the workplace, and it is caused by ignorance of the information on the issued documents, warnings can be used. They will caution the worker to be careful next time. In most firms, there are three warnings issued (Allen, 2014, p.162) Termination reviews-This process occurs where an employee keeps on repeating the same mistake as a result of not following instructions. The supervisor can take the case to the HR for discussion whether the person to continue working or face termination. Procedures Consultations- where employees, especially the new ones, fail to understand instructions set through the provided materials, they can consult their colleagues or approach the supervisor for clarification. Policy reviews-At times, the management can be such friendly that the workers are free to raise their views on policies set. If they are unfavorable, they management can hold a meeting and decide what to do. Conclusion Green Heaters Company is a new firm in the market. It should, therefore, employ expertise when creating standard documents. The way the company starts build the foundation on how it will be operating in future. Investors will be keenly observing ready to invest in it once they realize it is getting satisfied. Therefore, the discussion narrated in the previous pages should be considered by the Board of Directors. References Allen, K.A., 2014. Steps for fair performance management. Professional Beauty, (May/Jun 2014), p.162 Coffey, A., 2014. Analysing documents. The SAGE handbook of qualitative data analysis, pp.367-380. Dias, V., Carlos, J. and da Costa, J.M.S.A., 2016. Migration of Brazilian Intellectual Workers in the International Market: Identification of Enticing Employees Acts and the Legal Mechanisms to Cease the Appropriation of Technology and Unfair Competition Practices. Braz. J. Int'l L., 13, p.285. Fergus, E., 2015. Workplace Law, John Grogan; and Dismissal, John Grogan: book notices. South African Law Journal, 132(3), pp.699-702. Funk, M. and Schmidt, A., 2015. Cognitive assistance in the workplace. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 14(3), pp.53-55. Landsbergis, P.A., Grzywacz, J.G. and LaMontagne, A.D., 2014. Work organization, job insecurity, and occupational health disparities. American journal of industrial medicine, 57(5), pp.495-515. Leijten, M., Van Waes, L., Schriver, K. and Hayes, J.R., 2014. Writing in the workplace: Constructing documents using multiple digital sources. Journal of Writing Research, 5(3), pp.285-337. Hu, Z., Fang, S. and Liang, T., 2014. Empirical study of constructing a knowledge organization system of patent documents using topic modeling. Scientometrics, 100(3), pp.787-799. Nicholson, G., Pugliese, A. and Bezemer, P.J., 2017. Habitual accountability routines in the boardroom: How boards balance control and collaboration. Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal, 30(2). Siemens, G., 2014. Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Tobin, T.J., Eroshin, V., Zheng, Z., Louie, P., Lu, J. and Varadharajan, A., Salesforce. Com, Inc., 2015. System, method and computer program product for locally defining related reports using a global definition. U.S. Patent 9,189,532. Winton, S. and Pollock, K., 2013. Preparing politically savvy principals in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(1), pp.40-54.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Immune System Lab Report Sample

Immune System Lab Report Paper During this lab activity, my partner and I will test the effectiveness of different hand-washing times, techniques, and materials. The objective of this activity is to answer the question: How long does it take to effectively wash your hands? I hypothesize that it takes around 35 seconds to effectively wash your hands, because it takes a while to rub off all the germs on your hands. I think the longer you wash your hands for, the cleaner they will get. Safety Notes: -be sure you are using washable paint that can be removed with soap and water. Wash your hands carefully after completing the lab activity -be sure that you eave permission and supervision from a guardian before completing this lab activity -do not touch your face with paint and avoid getting paint in your eyes protect the work surface, using newspaper or other covering, and wear an apron or old clothes Materials: -timer or watch that counts seconds -sink -blindfold -washable paint or food coloring -paper towels -soap -pa rtner (this can be a friend or family member) -newspaper to protect the work surface (optional) Proceed re: 1. Pick one person to be the hand washer and one person to be the timekeeper. You will both have the opportunity to complete each of the experiments, so you ill each be washing your hands two times. 2. Washer #1 should put a small amount (about a tablespoon) of washable paint on the palm of one hand and spread it evenly over both hands. Be sure to cover the backs of the hands and the skin next to and under the fingernails. Allow the paint to dry completely. 3. Go to the skink and blindfold Washer #1 so he or she cant see his/her hands. Turn on warm water. We will write a custom essay sample on Immune System Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Immune System Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Immune System Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Have washer #1 wash with just water for one second. After one second, have the timekeeper blot dry the washers hands by very lightly touching the paper towel to the skin. Use the scoring guide to record the lankiness on the water only data table in the row marked Washer #1. Do not let Washer #1 see his/her hands, and be sure that you do not give away any hints about how clean they are. 4. Have the washer wash for four more seconds with just water. Again, lightly blot the washers hands and record their cleanliness in the data table. Have the washer wash for 15 seconds more with water. Once again, blot and record the cleanliness on the data table. 6. Take the blindfold off and allow the washer to completely clean his/her hands. 7. Change roles and repeat steps 2 through 6 with washer #2. Record these results on the second row of the data table under Washer #2. 8. Now change roles again so that washer #1 is back to the role of hand washer. Repeat steps 2-6, having the washer use soap e ach time. Record the results in the appropriate row of the data table. 9. It is now time for Washer #2 to repeat steps 2-6 using soap each time. Record these results in the second row of the data table. Scoring Guide: Completely Dirty Very Dirty Somewhat Dirty Slightly Dirty Clean 4 3 2 Data and Observations: Water Only: Total Wash Time (in seconds) O Seconds 1 Second 5 Seconds 20 Seconds Washer #1 Washer #2 Average Cleanliness Score 3. 5 Soap and Water: 1. 5 Data Analysis: Just water: With Soap and Water: Conclusion: 1. How do the results of the four trials compare? In all four trials, they all started out at O seconds with a cleanliness score of 4. As time went on, the hands got cleaner and cleaner. The hands were much cleaner when people used soap. When you use just water, your hands leave a lot of paint on them, and are much dirtier than when you used soap. 2. What, if any, errors or inconsistencies may have occurred in this experiment? Some inconsistencies may have been a slightly different amount of paint during each experiment and the speed of washing your hands would be different each time you wash them. The amount of soap could have been a little different each time, along with the water pressure. 3. What suggestions do you have for improving this lab and minimizing errors or inconsistencies? Be specific. To improve this lab and minimize errors or inconsistencies could be to set an amount of soap to use during each washing. Also, you should set an amount of water pressure (such as turning the sink knob all the way), because the more water, the cleaner the hands will be. Also, set an exact amount of paint you need each time. 4. Based on these results, what is the importance of soap and time for effective hand washing? Based on these results, soap and time are needed for effective hand washing. When soap was used, it got off much more of the paint than when only water was used. The paint is like germs, so more germs will wash off your hands when you use soap. The hands were significantly cleaner the longer they were washed for. When washed for the longest time period, there was a significant difference in the amount of paint left to be washed off. When you wash your hands longer, you are allowing many more germs to be washed off your hands. Using a combination of soap and time, you will be able to get your hands very clean. 5. What areas of the hands retained the paint the longest, requiring careful scrubbing to get clean? Around the fingernails took a very long time to get clean and required careful scrubbing Also, the skin around the joints in the finger were hard to get clean. 6. Analyze the graphs. What do they indicate about the time it may take to effectively wash your hands? The graphs show that it will take 20 or more seconds to effectively wash your hands. When the line graph reaches the x-axis that is when the hands are completely clean, because that would mean he cleanliness score is O.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Induction essays

Induction essays Induction is reasoning from a small set of examples to a general conclusion about all similar examples. For instance, we believe that the sun will rise tomorrow based on countless days of experience. Of particular importance to us is drawing conclusions about the future on the basis of past or present experience. Hume says that all such reasoning works only if things go on as they have before. Only if past experience is a reliable guide to future experience. Without this assumption, the reasoning is unjustified. So, how do we know the future will be like the past. Deduction wont work because it is not a contradiction to assume that the future will change. Hume says that just because the future has resembled the past in the past, it doesnt follow that it will resemble the past from now on. If one assumes this, they are arguing in a circle. Induction may be justified by saying that the past or present cause the future. If we know the cause, which is the past or present , then we know the effect, which is the future. However, Hume says that you only have the idea of causation because, in the past, you have seen things go together all the time. Therefore, the concept of causation is based on past experience. To assume that causation will continue as it has is to assume the future will be like the past. This is circular reasoning. According to Hume the attempts to answer the problem of induction cannot succeed. Contemporary science is very successful. Its success is based on discovering exception less laws of nature. So, we are justified in concluding that nature follows exception less laws. However, Hume believes that this is still circular reasoning because laws have been exception less up until now so how do we know that will continue. The more we notice a uniformity, that is we see two things together, the more probable that they will appear together next time. The problem with this, according to H...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 30

Economics - Essay Example were considered â€Å"too-large-to-fail† (reference?)because of the substantial public interest involved in their continued operation, and thus it was generally taken for granted that government will bail them out. Coupled with this is the â€Å"shift towards more self-regulatory rules that permitted US investment banks to increase leverage and reduce diversification under pressure of competition† (Coffee, 2009, p.1). No reference â€Å"functional regulators† or is there no need to? GAO is the source of the phrase. Its inclusion within the same sentence as having expressed the idea, then followed by another citation at the end of the paragraph, are sufficient. A concern expressed by the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is that while the different activities were allowed within the same bank, they remained subject to â€Å"functional regulators† (***reference***)where federal authorities (such as the SEC or CFTC) had jurisdiction over specific financial products or services. This resulted in multiple regulators overseeing different business lines within a single institution, and obscured the lines demarcating their areas and making regulation more difficult (US GAO, 2009). Should Clarification on Dodd be made? Or there is no need to? Well, this is the only bill currently passing Congres. Having to clarify it will waste wordcount which we don’t have. I’ll just replace Dodd with the word â€Å"proposed†. In the US, the origin of the 2008 subprime market crisis, reforms being sought are incorporated in the Dodd(?)banking reform bill that has been passed by the House of Representatives and which is being considered in the Senate. is there grammar correct on the following? Yes, these are parts of an enumeration. We could put them as bulleted phrases, but some profs don’t want the paragraph form disturbed in the case of essays, so they don’t want bulleting. Reference for Keynesian and Hayek ? Keynesian and Hayek are staple cornerstone theories, named

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Organisational Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Organisational Behaviour - Essay Example The field of organizational behavior is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. Organizational behavior is derived by incorporating various behavioral sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science and social psychology to ascertain the expectation level. (Foundations of human behavior, 2006) (i) Interpersonal Roles: which derives from the manager's position and the formal authority like leadership, liaison etc. (ii) Informational role: this is a direct result of the interpersonal roles ending up in information exchange, e.g., spokesperson, a monitor (iii)Decisional role: managers role as problem-solver, negotiator, resource allocator etc which is a derivation from the above two roles. (GRI Report, 2001:6) All these roles are important in a manager's job and are interrelated, even though some roles may be more influential than others depending upon the managerial position. For instance, sales managers may give more importance to interpersonal roles, while the production managers give more importance to decisional roles. The above facts lead to a clear picture that the organizational behavior is necessarily concatenated with the behavioral sciences. ... udying the interrelated behavioral processes, their disparity at specific situations and their interaction in the decision and communication performance within and among the organizational elements themselves. (Behavioral Science, 2006) Behavioral sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology etc, help to focus in deriving organizational behavior theories. The current study focuses on three main topics (i) Personality, (ii) Stereotypes and (iii) Group Dynamics I. Personality and the "Trait Theory" Individuals are different in their mental and physical traits. People who form the main components of an organization thus differ both physically (age, sex, height, weight, etc), and also psychologically (intelligence, attitude, motivational level, perceptions, etc.) This belief that each human being is totally different from each other is known as "Law of individual differences". This points out to a crucial fact that the management has to treat them uniquely to get the best out of each and every one. (Robbins & Judge, 2006) A theory on personality aspect, The Trait theory suggests that people have some traits in common with each other and are also different from others in certain other aspects. The main five personality traits emerged from this theory related to job performance could be summarized as extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience. In an organizational setup the personality factors which affect its performance are the Need pattern, introversion or extroversion, tolerance for ambiguity, self esteem and self concept, Type A and Type B personalities etc. These aspects will differ from person to person and as per the managers are concerned; they need to master the tolerance for ambiguity with other

Monday, November 18, 2019

Smartphones Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Smartphones - Research Paper Example Smartphones assist students in the universities and colleges to connect to their instructors in various activities such as giving assignments and rescheduling classes. Statistics shows that Smartphone are essential devices and contribute positively to the lives of students. 53% of the phone uses are at the age of 18-24 years while 63% of the users are at the age of 25 to 34 years in the USA (33). Although Smartphones are very useful in academic institutions, they can also be harmful to schools especially during exam periods. Some of the harmful effects of students having Smartphones in schools especially Universities are cheating in exams, texting when instructors are in class and disturbances when they ring. There are several advantages of using mobile phones in the class by the students and teachers such as connectivity enhancement. Tutors and instructors can give assignments to students through the internet without the necessity of physical contact. Students do not need to visit the library to search for items as they can use the internet, which enhances their studies. According to Hingorani and others, students who do not have Smartphones experience some fear known as Nomophobia especially in the universities (35). There is increased usage of mobile phones by the youth aged between 18 and 35 years with most of them preferring Smartphones compared to other types of phones (36). As the students, advance their academic levels, their usage of mobile phones increases. Mobile phones have many accessories making their usage have a wide diversity in terms of its uses such as calculators, navigators, and maps, which are very useful to students and instructors (36). Students normally utilize S martphones in performing most of the class work such as calculations, studying maps, and downloading lecturers’ notes. There are many other services in the universities

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Service User And Care Involvement Analysis Social Work Essay

Service User And Care Involvement Analysis Social Work Essay This review will consist of an introduction, aims of the review, and methods of data collection, findings on a series of questions and answers on the extent of service user involvement in the discharge process, conclusions, and possible recommendations for change. It will conclude with a reflection piece. The following review will discuss the issue of service user involvement in the discharge/transfer procedure. The review was compiled by the author within a nineteen bedded Forensic Mental Health unit. The ward was at full capacity at the time of writing this review. The service users all had different levels of mental illness, each with a different history, level of cognitive awareness, degree of institutionalisation and willingness to adapt and change. This review will assess to what extent service users are involved with the discharge planning process in the ward, if any, and give possible recommendations on how this process may be improved. Aims of the Review During this placement the author decided on a subject to review, this subject was service user involvement in discharge planning. While collating information for the review some questions arose these questions were: Does the service user feel included in decision making? How does the staff involve the service user in the decision making if at all? Has discharge been discussed with the service user? These questions lead to the author constructing some key questions to carry out in the review these will be discussed further in the findings. 91 Methods used to construct review The data for the review was collected over a ten week period within the ward. The author consulted service users notes, attended multidisciplinary team meetings and conducted a series of semi-structured, one to one interviews with service users and staff, including a consultant, doctors, ward manager, nurses, nursing assistants and occupational therapists. A literature search was also carried out using accredited databases including CINAHL and the British Nursing Index. Relevant journal articles were found on these databases using keywords such as service user, involvement and mental health services. Nursing research books were also used to gather information along with web sites underlining national policies and models for mental health nursing. 110 Findings How are decisions made within the placement area regarding discharge planning? A Forensic Mental Health Unit is not part of the prison services it is a service that specialises in the assessment and treatment of people who have a Mental Disorder. According to the Mental Health Care and Treatment Act 2003 a mental disorder is an illness such a personality disorder or learning disability defined by the act, whereby the mental disorder has been a contributing factor to the person offending. Throughout the weeks on this placement research was carried out by the author on policies and procedures for discharge planning. The one in particular that was found to be relevant was the Care Programme Approach (CPA). CPA is about early identification of needs, assignment of individuals or organisations to meet those needs in an agreed and co-ordinated way and regular reviews of progress with the service user and care providers. CPA is also about involving family or carers at the earliest point. The Care Programme Approach requires that service users should be provided with copies of their care plans and it has been increasingly common for service users who have been the responsibility of forensic psychiatrists to have copies of documents relating to their care. (DOH 2008). Systems were in place for comprehensive care planning. There was evidence to show that the service users social, educational and occupational needs were taken into account in the care planning process and other specialist interventions were available. In addition to this, in some cases, discharge/transfer planning was evident from an early stage (not long after admission), although in other cases a few months had elapsed before any document noted those discussions. Discharge planning is enhanced by the Care Programme Approach (CPA) a multi-disciplinary care planning systematic approach that involves service users and their carers. Care Programme Approach is the framework for care co-ordination and resource allocation in mental health services. Decisions for discharge are made through the multi-disciplinary team which consists of consultants, ward manager, nursing staff, occupational therapy and social workers. discharge guidance 4. This will go forward to a tribunal where the service user will be invited to take part, here all the evidence will be put forward and a decision will be made. If the service user is restricted then the decision will be made by the First Minister. When a service user is restricted it means an order has b een applied to them as they are seen by the act to be a more serious offender, this then means that the Home Office is responsible for granting discharge and a representative will be invited to the Tribunal (MHCT Act 2003 SECTION 37/41). Most service users have long term mental health problems and complex social needs and have been in contact with mental health services for more than twenty years so never think about discharge. Being in hospital for so long has become part of their lives so service users see it as pointless being discharged, what would I do. 488 SECTION 117 AFTER-CARE Prior to 1983, no statutory provision was made for the after-care of patients discharged from hospital. Section 117 introduced and defined formal after-care. In particular it stated: It shall be the ditty of the health authority and the local authority to provide in conjunction with voluntary agencies after-care services for any person to whom this Section applies, until such time that the health authority and local authority are satisfied that the person concerned is no longer in need of such services . Section 117 of the 1983 Mental Health Act applies to patients who have been detained under Section 3,37, 37/41, 47/49, 48/49. Before a decision is taken to discharge or grant leave to a patient, it is the responsibility of the RMO to ensure, in consultation with other members of the multi-disciplinary team, that the patients needs for health and social care have been fully assessed, and that the care plan addresses them. The Section 117 meeting The aim of the meeting is to draw up an after-care plan, based on the most recent multi-disciplinary assessment of the patients needs. During the meeting the following areas should be covered as appropriate: Housing Finances Relationships/family Employment Social needs Psychology/mental health difficulties Relapse predictors Known risk factors When the care plan is agreed the team should ensure that a key worker is identified to monitor the care plan. The Care Co-Ordinator can come from either of the statutory agencies, and should not be appointed unless they are present at the meeting, or unless they have given their prior agreement.. The process for Sec 117 can be found in Trust Policy and Procedure and applies to all patients accepted by psychiatric services. What decisions/involvement does the service user have in this process? Within this placement the care and treatment plans are reviewed on a regular basis. Service users are expected to meet with their key worker and other team members on a regular basis, care plans are reviewed at these meetings and a mutual agreement will be decided, on the best way forward, once the care plan has been agreed by all the service user has to adhere to the care plan.(discharge guidance)no.16 Rights, Relationships and Recovery (2006): The Report of the National Review of Mental Health Nursing in Scotland Service users are encouraged to be fully involved in all aspects of their care as far as they are able to. Service users past and present wishes should be taken into account, their views and opinions with regards to their treatment plan must also be recorded, as stated in the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) Act Scotland 2003. These wishes and aspects will be turned into a care plan that is individual to the service user. The principles of the act underpin any decision made relating to a detained service user in Scotland. The Milan Committee devoted a chapter in the act that referred to high risk patients it stated that service users should have the right of appeal to be transferred from a high or medium secure facility to that of a facility with lower security conditions. (Mental Health Care and Treatment Scotland Act 2003). This however seemed to be the problem across the board, lack of medium/low secure facilities to discharge /transfer appropriate service users to. Service users have the opportunity for regular one-to-ones with their key workers (weekly basis) or more regularly if they require. Service users have the opportunity to put forward their thoughts on discharge and any other aspect of their care at the review, such as their rights, beliefs and their right to a tribunal. The author attended these independant tribunals while on this placement and at these tribunals people had stated that their human rights had been violated (The Human Rights Act 1998). They felt they were still being discriminated against for offences they had committed 20-30 years ago and feel they were being held under excessive security hence the reason for the tribunal to appeal against this level of security. this would mean they would be granted grounds access on a trial period which may be supervised, then become unsupervised for a trial period to see how the service user would cope, this in turn will lead to a further tribunal taking place in a set time agreed f or example 4 or 6 months away, where the service user may be granted discharge/transfer to a lower secure unit depending that all provisions that had been put in place had been adhered to, for example, risk assessment reviewed, treatment regime being followed, attend all social/therapy/strategy groups that were agreed. The review takes place every four months, again this is a multi-disciplinary meeting and service users are invited to attend with the support of advocacy or someone of their choice. The Human Rights Act 1998 gives legal effect in the UK to certain fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). These rights not only affect matters of life and death like freedom from torture and killing, but also affect your rights in everyday life: what you can say and do, your beliefs, your right to a fair trial and many other similar basic entitlements. During the time spent on this placement it was noted that service users and key workers met at the beginning of the week to discuss how they felt things had been for them, the service user has the opportunity to discuss what changes they would like to happen, this is then recorded in the service users notes and taken forward to the clinical team that week where it would be discussed if any changes in care and treatment would take place, the service user is then informed of any changes and decisions made which they have the right to appeal against (The Human Rights Act 1998). The opportunity arose for the author to take part in these weekly reviews, during this one-to-one time most service users were able to express their thoughts and feelings about issues they had encountered that week and describe what therapeutic strategies they used to get through it. The service user will be provided with a copy of the Treatment Plan Objectives, or informed in detail of the contents of the treatment plan, in the event that any learning or specific reading or language difficulty information should be provided in a way that is most likely to be understood. Arnstein (1969) constructed a ladder of participation which described eight stages of user participation in services, including mental health. These stages ranged from no participation to user controlled services. The above service users would be placed on the sixth rung of the ladder in the partnership range as they agree to share planning and decision-making responsibilities. Partnership Partnership, like community, is a much abused term. I think it is useful when a number of different interests willingly come together formally or informally to achieve some common purpose. The partners dont have to be equal in skills, funds or even confidence, but they do have to trust each other and share some commitment. In participation processes as in our personal and social lives building trust and commitment takes time. discharge guidance 16.6 908 Does this placement area reflect its practice on local or national policies regarding service user involvement in discharge planning? (Mental Health Care and Treatment Scotland Act 2003). (The Human Rights Act 1998). When asked their views on the subject the Ward manager and senior nursing staff presented documentation which reaffirmed current practice within the ward. The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities (ESCs) DOH (2004) he explained was the model now being followed on the ward, has just been implemented into this area of placement within the last two years, which the ward staff have adopted well by providing a person-centred approach as much as possible. This new person-centred model embraced the ethos of the above, and senior staff stressed that good practice dictated that service users have the opportunity to appropriately influence delivery of care and support. A review of policies and procedures as well as discussions with staff provided evidence that the policies were actually in place. Throughout the placement, the author noticed that efforts were being made all the time to nurse according to the new model. Included were regular one to one sessions between nurses and service users to hear their views and thoughts, these already took place before the ESCs were introduced. Moreover some staff do find it difficult to adopt the ESCs and the mental health act due to the restraints of the environment (secure ward); however they are prepared to embrace the opportunity for further education and support. 211 Identify barriers and constraints. Before a decision is taken to discharge or grant leave to a patient, it is the responsibility of the RMO to ensure, in consultation with other members of the multi-disciplinary team, that the patients needs for health and social care have been fully assessed, and that the care plan addresses them. Section 117 of the 1983 Mental Health Act applies to patients who have been detained under Section 3,37, 37/41, 47/49, 48/49. While on placement and conducting this review the author noted that one of the barriers to effective involvement came from some of the service users, due to the complex nature of the area the service users had become institutionalised and found it difficult to be thinking about discharge at this stage in their lives, so they just accept the way things are and do not get too much involved as far as care plans are involved and just say what they think the staff want to hear. In secure settings engagement of service users in assessment and treatment can be difficult, as there is a potential risk of perceived coercion. Moreover with the lack of medium secure facilities around this can hinder service users from moving on within the specified time limit agreed, as there are no provisions. 138 Recommendations for Development SMART Most service users were more concerned about their futures and life post discharge. They wanted their time between now and then to be concerned with preparing them for discharge. It was frustrating for many service users that they felt that little in the way of such preparation was taking place. Continue to provide service users with support and skills needed appropriate to their function and skills already held, for example cookery groups, IT groups. Provide groups that enhance social skills such as coping strategy groups, anger management, alcohol/drug treatment/groups. High secure units should ensure that at the point of discharge patients have a copy of their discharge care plan in a suitable format which includes appropriate information about the circumstances that might result in their return to a secure mental health provision such as However a recommendation that high secure units should ensure that factors to be weighed in assessing relapse are part of the risk assessment included in the discharge plan of all service users. The National Service Framework for Mental Health states that Service users and carers should be involved in planning, providing and evaluating training for all health care professionals (Department of Health, 1999). This is the case in most health care provisions but for more education, training and information to be more readily available. Strengthening the user perspective and user involvement in mental health services has been a key part of policymaking in many countries, and also has been encouraged by World Health Organization (WHO) in order to establish services that are better tailored to peoples needs and used more appropriately. 265 Reflection In this review, I need to reflect on the situation that took place during my clinical placement to develop and utilise my interpersonal skills in order to maintain the therapeutic relationships with service users. In this reflection, I am going to use Gibbs Reflective Cycle Gibbs (1988). This model is a recognised framework for my reflection. Gibbs (1988) consists of six stages to complete one cycle which is able to improve my nursing practice continuously and learning from the experience for better practice in the future. During the first week of placement I was encouraged to work closely with my mentor. This gave me the opportunity to orientate myself to the ward and get an overview of the needs and requirements of the service users. This also provided me with the chance to observe how the nursing team worked on the ward. During this time I had learned that if the concept of inter-professional working is to succeed in practice, professionals need excellent team working and communication skills. Good communication, as we have staged in our group work theory, (skills for practice 3) is crucial in the effective delivery of patient care and poor communication can result in increased risk to the service users. I have learned the valuable skills required for good communication and will transfer these into practice by adapting to the local communication procedures (expand). The NMC advices that at the point of registration students should have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with colleagues and other departments to improve patients care (NMC, 2004). 256